Sources: Newspapers – Major Papers
Shenbao. 申報. Shanghai, 1872-1949.
One of the most influential daily newspapers published in the Shanghai concessions. It started from April 30, 1872 and ran until 1949. In its early period, it had 8 pages, with coverage of news, essays, and advertisements. Because the editorial policies followed the principle of “reporting whatever possible and letting the readers determine the truth,” many interesting but unfounded rumors were often included as news. In this way it was similar to contemporary papers in the United States. One of its features is that it included imperial decrees and memorials. After 1905, it enlarged its size to 20 pages. In 1909, Xi Zipei bought Shenbao from its foreign owners. (Its first owner was Ernest Major, an English merchant. When he went back to England in 1889, this newspaper was reorganized as Major Company Limited.) Later, in 1912, it was controlled by Shi Liangcai until he was assasinated by KMT agents in 1935. Usually, Shenbao was considered a moderate liberal newspaper. It had the following sections: editorials, international news, domestical news, local news, industry and trade, law and society, sports and education, literature and art, and advertisements. In addition to reporting important political news stories, it had many special columns and supplements such as ziyou tan (free discussion), automobile, education and life . It stopped for a short period in 1937, then resumed in Hankou and Chongqing in 1938. After 1939, it continued to be published in Shanghai. Some issues of the current microfilm version are missing.
Shenbao suoyin, 1872-1949. 申報索引. Shanghai: Shanghai shudian, 1987.
Indexes to Shenbao (1872-1949) in 30 volumes, arranged chronologically. In each year, the index is arranged by subject: politics, military affairs, foreign relations, economy, culture, history and geography, social life, and international affairs. It also has a name index for people and title and author index for ziyou tan (free discussion). This index is selective one, for it only includes those materials deemed of historical importance.
Xu Zaiping. Qingmo xishinian shenbao shiliao, 清末四十年申報史料. Beijing: Xinhua chubanshe, 1988.
Tells the early history of Shenbao and makes abstracts of its major contents.
Dagong bao (L’Impartial). 大公報. Tianjin, China, 1902–1937.
One of China’s largest and most influential newspapers. Maintained a degree of independence in part by publishing in the concessions. Less obviously biased than many of its rivals. Published in Tianjin (1902-1937), in Chongqing (1938-1949), Guilin (1941-1944), and again in Tianjin (1945-1949). Articles are largely politically focused, including news on international and domestic issues. The paper also covers economics and cultural topics such as women’s life, book reviews, and education. Each city edition is listed individually.
Dagong bao (L’Impartial). 大公報. Chongqing, China, 1938–1949.
Dagong bao (L’Impartial). 大公報. Guilin, China, 1941–1944.
Dagong bao (L’Impartial). 大公報. Tianjin, China, 1945–1949.
Fang, Meng, and Guoming Xie. “Dagong bao” yu xiandai Zhongguo: 1926–1949 nian dashi jishilu. 大公报与现代中国: 1926–1949年大事记实录. Chongqing: Chongqing chubanshe, 1993.
This book highlights important news stories, editorials, and special announcements from the Dagong Bao for each day between 1 September 1926 and 17 June 1949. This book provides an easy way to peruse the paper for these types of stories. Organized chronologically, however, it does not include an index.
Shibao. 時報. Microfilm ed. Shanghai, 1909-12.
A daily newspaper in Shanghai, it began in June 12, 1904 and ended in Sept.1, 1939. Microfilm available from 1909 to 1912. Besides advertisements. It usually has 6-7 pages which contain international and domestical news and reports, editorials and brief reviews on current affairs. It also pays great attention to local news and thus provides a lot of information about political, economic, and social life in Shanghai at that time. Considered the most progressive newspaper in the decade before the 1911 revolution. Hu Shi is noted to have been impressed and influenced by this publication.
Judge, Joan. Print and politics: ‘Shibao’ and the culture of reform in late Qing China, Studies of the East Asian Institute. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1996.
Provides excellent background to the newspaper and its influence.
Xinwen bao. 新聞報. Shanghai: Xinwen baoshe, 1893–1949.
A daily newspaper established in 1893 under Chinese ownership, Xinwen bao ran until 1949, when its name was changed to Xinwen ribao. It opened under Chinese ownership; it later acquired American interests, and fluctuated between Chinese and American ownership. Whereas Shenbao appealed to intellectuals, the Xinwen bao appealed to merchants. Its first issues indicate a focus on local, regional, and national news items (many relayed by telegraph). A survey of 1938 issues indicates a broadening of scope. The first three pages were dominated by advertisements and public notices, with news items only appearing on the fourth page. In addition to news, Xinwen bao provided arts and business coverage.