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Qing (1644-1911)

  • Manchu rule and ethnicity
  • Government
  • State and society
  • Economy
  • Elites
  • Scholarship and Culture
  • Urban Society
  • Women and family
  • Religion and Popular Culture
  • Opium Wars
  • Foreign Relations, Imperialism, and Trade
  • Missionaries
  • Peasant Rebellion and Collective Violence
  • New Policies Period
  • Facing the West: The State Response
  • Facing the West: The Intellectual Response
  • 1911 Revolution
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